# DECIMAL

## DECIMALβ

DECIMAL

### Descriptionβ

DECIMAL (M [,D])

High-precision fixed-point number, M represents the total number of significant digits, and D represents the scale.

The range of M is [1, 38], and the range of D is [0, precision].

The default value is DECIMAL(9, 0).

### Precision Deductionβ

DECIMAL has a very complex set of type inference rules. For different expressions, different rules will be applied for precision inference.

#### Arithmetic Expressionsβ

- Plus / Minus: DECIMAL(a, b) + DECIMAL(x, y) -> DECIMAL(max(a - b, x - y) + max(b, y) + 1, max(b, y)).
- Multiply: DECIMAL(a, b) + DECIMAL(x, y) -> DECIMAL(a + x, b + y).
- Divide: DECIMAL(p1, s1) + DECIMAL(p2, s2) -> DECIMAL(p1 + s2 + div_precision_increment, s1 + div_precision_increment).div_precision_increment default 4. It is worth noting that the process of division calculation is as follows: DECIMAL(p1, s1) / DECIMAL(p2, s2) is first converted to DECIMAL(p1 + s2 + div_precision_increment, s1 + s2) / DECIMAL(p2, s2) and then the calculation is performed. Therefore, it is possible that DECIMAL(p1 + s2 + div_precision_increment, s1 + div_precision_increment) satisfies the range of DECIMAL, but due to the conversion to DECIMAL(p1 + s2 + div_precision_increment, s1 + s2), it exceeds the range. Currently, Doris handles this by converting it to Double for calculation.

#### Aggregation functionsβ

- SUM / MULTI_DISTINCT_SUM: SUM(DECIMAL(a, b)) -> DECIMAL(38, b).
- AVG: AVG(DECIMAL(a, b)) -> DECIMAL(38, max(b, 4)).

#### Default rulesβ

Except for the expressions mentioned above, other expressions use default rules for precision deduction. That is, for the expression `expr(DECIMAL(a, b))`

, the result type is also DECIMAL(a, b).

#### Adjust the result precisionβ

Different users have different accuracy requirements for DECIMAL. The above rules are the default behavior of Doris. If users **have different accuracy requirements, they can adjust the accuracy in the following ways**:

- If the expected result precision is greater than the default precision, you can adjust the result precision by adjusting the parameter's precision. For example, if the user expects to calculate
`AVG(col)`

and get DECIMAL(x, y) as the result, where the type of`col`

is DECIMAL (a, b), the expression can be rewritten to`AVG(CAST(col as DECIMAL (x, y))`

. - If the expected result precision is less than the default precision, the desired precision can be obtained by approximating the output result. For example, if the user expects to calculate
`AVG(col)`

and get DECIMAL(x, y) as the result, where the type of`col`

is DECIMAL(a, b), the expression can be rewritten as`ROUND(AVG(col), y)`

.

### Why DECIMAL is requiredβ

DECIMAL in Doris is a real high-precision fixed-point number. Decimal has the following core advantages:

- It can represent a wider range. The value ranges of both precision and scale in DECIMAL have been significantly expanded.
- Higher performance. The old version of DECIMAL requires 16 bytes in memory and 12 bytes in storage, while DECIMAL has made adaptive adjustments as shown below.

`+----------------------+------------------------------+`

| precision | Space occupied (memory/disk) |

+----------------------+------------------------------+

| 0 < precision <= 9 | 4 bytes |

+----------------------+------------------------------+

| 9 < precision <= 18 | 8 bytes |

+----------------------+------------------------------+

| 18 < precision <= 38 | 16 bytes |

+----------------------+------------------------------+

- More complete precision deduction. For different expressions, different precision inference rules are applied to deduce the precision of the results.

### keywordsβ

DECIMAL