# PHYS 256Spring 2008Study Guide for Finalpage 1 of 2. Types of Questions: Multiple-Choice

PHYS 256Spring 2008Study Guide For FinalPage 1 of 2.

Types of questions: Multiple-choice, short answer, explain, illustration, essay, and problem.

A. Fundamental Definitions:

1.Units

- Base units and derived units.
- Unit systems: SI, CGS, and BE.

2.Define the physical quantities, for example velocity, acceleration, etc., we came across so far, and identify their units including their SI units.

3.Newton’s second law of motion.

4.Density: Volume density, Areal density, Linear density.

B. Simple Harmonic Motion:

- Distinguish periodic motion from simple harmonic motion.
- Hooke’s law and simple harmonic motion.
- Graphical representation of simple harmonic motion.
- Amplitude, period, wavelength, and frequency.

C. Waves and Sound:

- Nature and types of waves.
- Wavelength, period, frequency, and wave speed.
- Sound VERSUS Light and Bell-in-vacuum demonstration.
- Speed of sound measurement.
- Electromagnetic spectrum.

D. Explain the following fundamental properties of waves and sound.

- Huygens’s principle
- Superposition
- Inverse square law
- Polarization

E. Define the following general behavior of waves and illustrate them using diagrams.

- Refraction: Law of refraction.
- Reflection: Law of reflection.
- Interference: Conditions for constructive and destructive interference.

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PHYS 256Spring 2008Study Guide For FinalPage 2 of 2.

F. Chapter 3: Standing waves and the overtone series

1. Express Wave Speed in terms of Wavelength and Frequency.

2. Transverse Standing Waves on a string:

Drawing the representations of standing waves for various modes.

Speed is given by,

Where F is the tension in the string and

W is linear mass density, mass/length.

Determining the wavelengths and calculating the frequencies for various modes.

Practice calculating speed of transverse waves on a string using the above equation.

3. Longitudinal Standing Waves in a column of air:

Drawing the representations of standing waves for various modes.

Determining the wavelengths and calculating the frequencies for various modes.

G. Chapter 4: Analysis and Synthesis of Complex Waves

- What is the difference between Fourier synthesis and Fourier analysis?
- Fourier Spectra, obtaining Fourier spectra from harmonic amplitudes.
- Obtaining a complex wave from its harmonic components using the principle of linear superposition.
- Identifying Fourier spectra of recorder, clarinet, violin, and krummhorn.

H. Chapter 6: The Human Ear and Voice

- Identifying parts of the human ear on a given diagram.
- Calculating resonant frequencies of the eardrum given its length.
- Calculating vocal formants of the vocal tract given its length.

I. Chapter 7: Sound Recording and Reproduction:

- What is Ohm’s law of electrical circuits? Explain each symbol and give its unit.
- Define electric power.
- State Faraday’s law of magnetic induction in your own words.
- Explain how a microphone and speaker works.

J. Chapter 8: Room and Auditorium Acoustics:

A hall is 25 ft x 30 ft x 20 ft. The front (25 ft) is covered by glass, the back by curtains, and both sides (30 ft) by plasterboard. The ceiling is of acoustical board, and the floor is carpeted.

a) What is the reverberation time at 2000 Hz?

b) For which purpose might this hall be suited?

K.Essay question

Topic: Violin or Piano.